Terminalia arjuna (Rox. Ex D.C.) Wight & Arn.

Terminalia arjuna (Rox. Ex D.C.) Wight & Arn.

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Description :

A large evergreen tree 21 to 30 m tall with a diameter of 1 to 2.5 m. It has an open, spreading crown with drooping branches. The leaves are simple with smooth margins and are oblong or elliptic 10 to 15 cm long. The truck is buttressed with pronounced ridges. The bark is thick, pinkish green to grey and peels off in large thin sheets. The flowers are yellowish white and occur in bunches 3 to 6 cm long between April and May. The fruit is a wood capsule 2.5 to 5 cm long. The cones mature in May and June. It has no known insect or disease problems. It can be reproduced both from seed and by vegetative means. It is a fast-growing tree that can produce yields between 10 and 12 m3/ha/yr. Heights of 5 to 8m have been recorded in a 5 year period. Grains are wavy, coarse and even-textured. Sapwood is reddish white, and heartwood is brown with streaks. Wood is hard, heavy and resilient having specific gravity of 0.9 and a calorific value of 5000 kcal/kg.

Distribution :

The tree is native to the subcontinent. In Pakistan it has been planted throughout the plains, in gardens and as a roadside tree. A shade tolerant tree that grows on a variety of moist sites if they are well drained. It will grow on saline, sodic and waterlogged sites. It requires a precipitation zone of 750 to 3800 mm/yr. It prefers a humid, hot tropical, sub-tropical monsoon climate with a temperature range of 0 to 45°C on elevations up to 600 m. The tree is not frost hardy.

Uses :

This fast-growing tree can grow on waterlogged and saline sites. It is valuable for fuel and other wood products. It is also useful for erosion control. The leaves are used for winter fodder and can also be used to feed tasar silkworms. An excellent farm forestry tree for areas where there are sodic, saline and waterlogged conditions. Also used for fuel, implements, erosion control, wheels, spokes and axles, fodder medicinal (bark is an astringent and cardiac stimulant), timber and ornamental purposes.